One can say there are two parts to understanding history, facts and logic.
In the Middle Ages, when a college at Cambridge would be particularly rich if it owned twenty books, each chained to the wall and with a full time Librarian to regulate access to them, Knowledge was everything.
Every person who had access to the chained books was aware that Aristotle had stated that men had more teeth than women. There was no correcting that. No matter what survey you took, you would be looking at men who had lost teeth or something.
I am NOT kidding about this.
I think it was Walter Pater who invented this “Renaissance” crap. The idea was that civilized Europe was a rebirth of civilized Rome, with those Dark Ages in between. Finally, his “modern” Europe had discovered Classical books and started using the opposable thumb and other things they hadn’t known about for a thousand years.
Actually, my vision is the exact opposite. Europe began a modern era when it ditched the horseshit of Galen and his bleeding and the ridiculous, outdated, dead end physics of “Form” and “Essence.”
This is very relevant today, because we have rocketed into an information revolution as profound as the whole difference between the chained book and twentieth-century public libraries. From chained books to public libraries in a period of eight hundred years, we have moved from public libraries to everything at your finger tip.
Facts are no longer rare. LOGIC is rare now.
We live in the Chained Book Age of LOGIC.
Mantra Thinking is the LOGIC.